There’s a whole lot of jargon surrounding the stuff archaeologists’ study, which can confuse even the most experienced in the field (i.e. Thermoluminescence, that’s a fun word). There are terms I occasionally hear from colleagues, where I just want to yell, ‘just say “dirt” already’ but jargon is important. Terms like artifact, lithics, ground stone, and so on, help us put things into categories, which then helps us figure out what on earth was going on at some site (i.e. a place where people made/left their stuff). I will soon be teaching my students the primary artifact types, so that they can get an idea of how archaeologists break down what they see in the field. Jargon makes us sound all kinds of fancy, but it can create a barrier between archaeology and the public. The following is just a little rundown of some of the types of artifacts out there. Hopefully, through the terms, you will see that whatever you’re looking at is more than just a pretty arrowhead or piece of pottery—jargon gives weight/meaning to each of the artifacts we find.
First things first: What is an artifact?
An artifact is anything made by human hands. In the United States, based on cultural resource management laws, an artifact is anything made by human hands that is 50 years old or older. That gross rusty evaporated milk can?
That’s an artifact! That 1,000-year-old basket fragment? That’s an artifact. You get the idea. Artifacts are an amazing tangible link to past people and cultures. If you find any kind of artifact, please, just take a picture and put it back where you found it; taking an artifact from the site can change how we interpret the past. Every artifact—even the ugliest of tin cans—matter!
Lithics: any artifact made of stone
Do you like stone tools? Well, those types of artifacts fall under the category of ‘lithics.’ Flint knapping, the process of making stone tools, generates a whole bunch of jargon-laden terms.
-Core: a big chunk of stone, like obsidian, which flakes are removed during the knapping process.
-Hammerstone: a nice rock to hit the core, in order to make flakes.
-Flake: a piece of stone removed from a core to make a tool or debitage.
-Debitage: stone debris knocked off a core that can’t be used for anything else.
Some sites may have a ‘lithic scatter’ where an archaeologist can tell if people were creating stone tools due to the amount of flakes and debitage left behind.
Projectile Point: those pointy things
A projectile point is the tool that gets fastened to the end of a spear, dart, or arrow shaft. Most people are familiar with stone spears and arrowheads, but they also have been made from antler, bone, and copper. The type of material used for projectile points can tell archaeologists about trade and the style can show cultural change overtime. Unfortunately, projectile points are some of the most popular artifacts to be taken from archaeological sites.
Ground stone: feel the grind
Ground stone tools are formed by the grinding, pecking, or polishing of one stone with another stone. These tools include manos and metates, which were used to grind up seeds. There are pestles that would be used to crush seeds in a carved-out shape on a boulder, as well as beautifully crafted stone axes to pipes.
Ceramics: fire it up
Ceramics are artifacts made of fired clay, including pottery (jars, bowls, etc.), figurines, or really any other objects using fired clay. Pottery provides archaeologists an incredible amount of information on clay types, trade, design, culture change, cooking, food, and so on.
Potsherds: no, not ‘shards’
A ‘sherd’ is a prehistoric or historic fragment of pottery. There are many rocks that look like sherds (‘shrocks’) and sherds that look like rocks (‘jerkfaces’), which can make it difficult to distinguish at a site.
Perishables: where’d it go?
Most artifacts observed at archaeology sites are made of long-lasting materials, like stone or fired clay. It’s not surprising that we typically do not find baskets, blankets, or animal skins at sites. You need extremely good conditions, like a dry cave, to preserve perishable artifacts or artifacts made from organic materials, to prevent them from completely breaking down overtime. It’s a particularly exciting day if you find a fragment of any kind of perishable artifact!